The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series: History <p>The Journal is devoted to current issues of the history of Ukraine, ancient and medieval history, archeology, modern and contemporary history, historiography and source studies. It will be interesting for scientists, experts, lecturers of higher educational institutions, postgraduate student, and students.</p> V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University en-US The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series: History 2220-7929 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br><br></p> <ol type="a"> <ul> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ul> </ol> <ol type="a"> <ul> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ul> </ol> <ol type="a"> <ul> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ul> </ol> On the Question of the Adoption of the Epiclesis ‘Euergetes’ by Ptolemy III <p>In 2020, I published the monograph From Basileis-Pharaohs to Pharaohs-Basileis: The First 100 Years of the Ptolemaic Monarchy. In that book, I proposed to move the date of the famine that occurred during the reign of Ptolemy III from 245/244 BC to the period between 243 and 238 BC, drawing on the evidence of the Alexandrian ‘synodal’ decree of 3 December 243 BC. If my hypothesis is correct, it becomes necessary to reconsider the background of Ptolemy’s adoption of the Greek form of the sacred epiclesis ‘Euergetes’ (Benefactor), which earlier I associated with the help that the population of Egypt received from the king during that famine. In modern historiography, there are a number of alternative suggestions regarding the prior actions of Ptolemy III, supposedly consistent with the Hellenistic ideas about euergetism. Among them are the victorious end of the Asian military campaign (246–245 BC); suppression of unrest in Egypt; return to Egypt of the statues of local gods and cult objects that had been removed by the Persian conquerors; and deeds for the benefit of Egyptian temples and sacred animals. But these actions of Ptolemy III either did not meet the definition of a ‘beneficent act’ or concerned only ethnic Egyptians. Traces of the Greek semantic content of the epiclesis ‘Euergetes’ should be sought in the Alexandrian ‘synodal’ decree produced by the Egyptian priesthood. It contains a list of the king’s merciful acts during the first years of his reign, including the easing of fiscal policy and proclamation of a mass amnesty. Such actions were understood as euergetism in the Egyptian and Greek (especially Hellenistic) traditions. Either of them could become the reason for the official deification of the Hellenistic ruler. Responding with an apotheosis to a large-scale act of economic euergetism became everyday reality in the Hellenistic world. Amnesty for prisoners also directly brought the benefactor closer to the Olympian gods, led by Zeus himself.</p> Andrii Zelinskyi Copyright (c) 2023 Andrii Zelinskyi 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 10 29 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-63-01 One Name, One Person: The Problem of Reconstructing the List of Early Kings of Piedras Negras in Light of the Hieroglyphic Texts from Yaxchilan <p>This article is concerned with an important episode in the early history of two neighboring kingdoms located in the western part of the Maya lowlands: Yaxchilan and Piedras Negras. The two sites were at war with each other and sought dominance in the Upper Usumacinta region for almost the entire duration of Classic Maya history (3rd to 10th centuries AD). The article examines some controversial issues related to the founding of the Yaxchilan and Piedras Negras dynasties and highlights the initial stage of their military confrontation, which took place in the second half of the 5th century. It is shown that the founders of both royal houses were probably of non-local origin, having arrived in their new capitals from elsewhere. The main sources used in this work are hieroglyphic inscriptions from Yaxchilan: lintels 11, 35, 37, and 49 and Hieroglyphic Stairway 1. These texts contain a list of local kings and a brief description of their military triumphs. In particular, it is mentioned that Jatz’oom Jol, the seventh ruler of Yaxchilan, and his successor Yaxuun Bahlam II gained victories over Piedras Negras and seized important captives. A ruler of Piedras Negras called Itzam K'an Ahk is mentioned in connection with both wars. Jatz’oom Jol captured Itzam K'an Ahk himself in the second half of the 450s at the earliest, and Yaxuun Bahlam II captured a military commander who served Itzam K'an Ahk in the late 460s or 470s. The opinion that two different rulers who successively sit on the throne of Piedras Negras, Itzam K'an Ahk I ("Ruler A") and Itzam K'an Ahk II ("Ruler B"), are mentioned on the Yaxchilan triumphal monuments is firmly established in historiography. However, having two successive Maya kings with the same name on the throne would have run contrary to the established practice of changing regnal names: the direct heir to the throne never repeated the name of their predecessor in the history of Yaxchilan and Piedras Negras. Besides that, the monuments from Yaxchilan only mention the capture of the enemy king, not his death. Maya history is replete with examples of defeated rulers returning home after being captured and ruling their kingdoms for many more years. This is what may have happened to Itzam K'an Ahk I. However, there is a plausible explanation for his being mentioned twice that is even simpler. Subordinate rulers and dignitaries in Classic Maya society maintained a personal relationship with their overlords even after the death of the latter. A military commander from Piedras Negras could remain a man of Itzam K'an Ahk I even if his suzerain had died in captivity long before the second war. Therefore, there are no sufficient grounds for distinguishing between the early Piedras Negras kings Itzam K'an Ahk I and Itzam K'an Ahk II. It is much more likely that the same person, namely the enemy king Itzam K'an Ahk I, is mentioned in the inscriptions in Yaxchilan and the list of rulers of Piedras Negras requires correction.</p> Maksym Styuflyaev Copyright (c) 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 30 61 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-63-02 The Activities of Johannes Bugenhagen during the 1530s to 1550s: The Unity of Theory and Practice in Lutheran Confessionalization <p>The article considers the activities of the prominent Lutheran reformer Johannes Bugenhagen (1485–1556) in the period from the 1530s to 1550s. The principal approaches to the reformer’s legacy in the historiography of the 19th to early 21st centuries are summarized. The main directions of Bugenhagen’s pursuits in the ecclesiastical, theological, political, and organizational spheres are analyzed. The article shows that Bugenhagen played a key role in the drafting and promulgation of a number of evangelical church statutes. It is noted that the church statute model developed by Bugenhagen for Brunswick, Hamburg, and Lübeck was widely adopted across many evangelical territories in Germany and abroad; in particular, attention is given to Bugenhagen’s reform work in Denmark. It is argued that Bugenhagen’s revision of church law along Reformation principles was associated with changes in other branches of law. It is emphasized that after the Schmalkaldic War of 1546– 1547 Bugenhagen remained one of the leaders of the evangelical forces and continued his reform work in the church and the University of Wittenberg. In the 1550s, he actively collaborated with such representatives of the ‘second generation’ of Lutheran supporters as Paul Eber, Martin Chemnitz, Andreas Wolf, and David Hitrois, as shown in his correspondence. The article analyzes Bugenhagen’s approach to theological problems, which was determined by the desire to affirm the ideas of Lutheranism in all aspects of church life; in particular, the reformer’s work in the last years of his life is considered. The author concludes that Johannes Bugenhagen achieved marked success in a number of spheres, combining theory and practice in dealing with the most important theological, political, and organizational issues of the day. The reformer’s principal achievements in the period from the 1530s to 1550s were the creation of a number of evangelical statutes, further development of the Lutheran dogma, and participation in the overhaul of university education. His active and varied pursuits strengthened Wittenberg’s connections with other centers of the evangelical movement, thus facilitating the spread of Lutheran confessionalization in Germany and other countries.</p> Serhiy Karikov Copyright (c) 2023 Serhiy Karikov 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 62 74 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-63-03 The foreign policy of Klemens von Metternich in the works of V. K. Nadler (1840–1894) <p>The foreign policy activities of Klemens von Metternich, the main organizer of the Congress of Vienna, the true architect of the post-Napoleonic international order, and minister of foreign affairs and chancellor of the Austrian Empire, attracted the attention of many researchers, especially on the eve of his 250th birthday anniversary. The first monograph in Russian imperial historiography entirely devoted to Metternich's diplomacy was authored by the Kharkiv University professor V. K. Nadler (1840–1894); but this aspect of Nadler’s scholarship is largely unknown today. The purpose of this article is to comprehensively analyze Nadler's works dealing with Klemens von Metternich's diplomatic legacy and its significance for the further development of the post-Napoleonic international order. The author employs the methods of historical and comparative analysis, systematization and generalization, and retrospective analysis. The article shows that, in addition to the specialized study on Metternich and the European Reaction (1882), Nadler partially devoted the multi-volume monograph Emperor Alexander I and the Idea of the Holy Alliance to the analysis of the foreign policy of the Austrian Empire in the first years of the Vienna System of international relations. Nadler tried to avoid exaggerating the role of the individual in history, in the best progressive tradition of the historiography of his day. However, to denote the new international order, Nadler usually used the name «Metternich's political system», thus stressing the crucial importance of the Austrian minister as the organizer of the Congress of Vienna, the guarantor of the implementation of its decisions, and the driving force behind the fight against any dissent in European countries. According to Nadler, while the Vienna international order initially developed precisely in the reactionary direction mapped out by Metternich, the Greek Revolution and the Adrianople Peace Treaty of 1829, which confirmed the autonomy of Greece, struck a real blow to the «Metternich system».</p> Serhii Lyman Copyright (c) 2023 Serhii Lyman 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 75 96 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-63-04 Women’s Religious Schools in the Ukrainian Lands (1854–1918) in Modern Historiography <p>The historiography of women’s religious schools began to emerge simultaneously with the creation and functioning of these educational institutions in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Individual works from this period contain ample and interesting factual material, including statistical data on the numbers of students and teachers. In the Soviet period, the study of this subject ceased, because women’s religious education was not among historians’ research interests at this time. The current period in the historiography of the problem began with the first years of Ukrainian independence. During the past three decades, a number of works of various formats on the history of education have been produced, but neither diocesan women’s schools nor women’s schools of the Department of Religious Affairs receive much attention in these studies. Usually, authors either limit themselves to listing the basic facts from the history of these institutions or do not mention them at all. The development of gender studies and the appearance of works on women’s history also have failed to significantly affect the historiography of women’s religious schools, as researchers continued to use approaches traditional for history of education, such as the study of the educational process or characterization of an institution’s student body and faculty. Since the 2000s, works begin to appear that focus specifically on the system of women’s religious education in the Ukrainian lands. A significant achievement of these works has been the accumulation of various statistical materials important for the comparative analysis of women’s religious schools. However, they also for the most part reproduce methods and approaches characteristic of 19th-century historiography, enumerating the basic facts from the history of these schools without proper analysis. Further, we may sometimes come across characterizations of women’s religious schools that are not grounded in careful analysis or backed by appropriate sources. Still, in recent years there have been positive changes in the study of the diocesan schools and schools of the Department of Religious Affairs, such as attention to new themes and the use of interdisciplinary approaches. Overall, the subject remains promising for further research.</p> Svitlana Nyzhnikova Copyright (c) 2023 Svitlana Nyzhnikova 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 97 116 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-63-05 On the Issue of the Formation of Football Infrastructure in Sofia in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries <p>One of the main components of the football industry today is its infrastructure. Training facilities, stadiums with stands for spectators, sports bases, retail outlets, museums of various teams and clubs all play key roles in the sport. In Britain, such amenities began to appear in the first half of the 19th century, in continental Western Europe — around the mid-1800s, and in the central and eastern parts of the Old World — even later, at the turn of the 20th century. The development of football infrastructure in Sofia is an illustrative example not only in the context of one city or country, but also for the region as a whole. Since in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the capital of Bulgaria saw the formation of traditions which determined the subsequent development of the city’s sports infrastructure, through this case study we can trace from where the complex of ideas related to establishing suitable sports facilities spread to Bulgaria and Southeastern Europe, how the process of formation and accumulation of knowledge in this specialized sphere unfolded, and how such facilities were actually built. The initiative to set up sports grounds belonged to Bulgarian educational institutions and societies, and such projects were financed by club members. The social groups that played the decisive role in the transfer of knowledge to the sports industry, namely to the construction of football playing grounds, were local youth with the experience of studies abroad and foreign teachers who worked in Bulgaria. The main routes of diffusion of this type of information originated in Switzerland and the Ottoman Empire. It was from these countries that the capital of the Balkan state received knowledge about the existing norms and rules for the construction of football fields. However, unlike in other European cities during this period, the sports infrastructure in Sofia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries did not yet become a component of business projects aiming to make a profit from renting out such facilities or from selling tickets to football fans.</p> Dmytro Mykolenko Copyright (c) 2023 Dmytro Mykolenko 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 117 131 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-63-06 Illegal Activities of Private Entrepreneurs in the Kharkiv Meat Trade (Second Half of the 1920s – Early 1930s) <p>The article examines the shadow activities of private entrepreneurs in the Kharkiv meat trade at the tail end of the NEP. The author analyzes the source base and historiography of the problem and finds that the understanding of this subject, despite certain positive shifts in recent decades, remains rather one-sided, which justifies its further in-depth study. The source base of the article is represented by various groups of reliable documents and provides a sufficient basis for a thorough consideration of the problem. The article illuminates the operating conditions of the meat trade in Kharkiv, uncovers the reasons for the development of illegal entrepreneurship, and characterizes the factors that contributed to the involvement of private capital in this sphere. The role of the Bolshevik state is highlighted: with its ‘class policy’ regarding the institution of private entrepreneurship, it squeezed out entrepreneurs into the sphere of illegal commerce. The paper explores the forms of adaptation of shadow entrepreneurs/hustlers to the conditions of the winding down of the NEP and the methods of illegal entrepreneurial activity in the Kharkiv meat trade and analyzes various ways of avoiding state control and taxation by meat trade hustlers. In order to avoid control by state authorities over their activities, the ‘bigwigs’ of the meat trade employed a number of means: they evaded the claiming of patents (patent-free trade) or used dummies for this purpose, claimed patents for smaller-category enterprises, used peasants for covering up their commercial activities, bribed employees of state structures (village councils, veterinary inspections, staff of state slaughterhouses), and resorted to various forms of social mimicry (such as the status of an employee in specially created fake cooperatives, a joint-stock form of entrepreneurship, etc.) to hide shadow activity. The forgery and falsification of financial documents and their deliberate destruction were also common. Among the shadow hustlers operating in the meat trade, there were many individuals with a criminal past and deviant behavior, which in general had a negative impact on the image of the trade. As the NEP was being phased out, in its efforts to fight shadow entrepreneurship and destroy the illegal meat trade the Bolshevik state actively applied both strict economic and (mainly) administrative and repressive measures. The systematic use of such measures towards the end of the NEP in fact aimed at the complete eradication of private commercial activity (including legal) in this sphere.</p> Yurii Volosnyk Copyright (c) 2023 Yurii Volosnyk 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 132 158 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-63-07 Kharkiv under Nazi Occupation as Seen by Female Soviet Intelligence Agents (March 1942) <p><span class="fontstyle0">–</span> </p> Oleksandr Yarmysh Copyright (c) 2023 Oleksandr Yarmysh 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 160 186 “Great Roman Eastern War: Armenian Dimension” (Book review: Sampson, Gareth C. Rome's Great Eastern War: Lucullus, Pompey and the Conquest of the East, 74–62 BC. Yorkshire – Philadelphia, 2021. 320 p.) <p><span class="fontstyle0">–</span> </p> Sergey Litovchenko Copyright (c) 2023 Sergey Litovchenko 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 188 194 Conversation about the Meeting of Cultural Traditions (Book review: Na perekhresti kul'tur: Monastyr i khram Presviatoi Trijtsi u Vil'niusi. Bumblauskas, A., Kuliavichius, S., Skochylias, I. (red.). 2-he, vypravl. j dopovn. vydannia. L'viv, 2019. 912 s.) <p><span class="fontstyle0">–</span> </p> Людмила Посохова Copyright (c) 2023 Liudmyla Posokhova 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 195 201 Jacques Attali: ‘Waves of the Future’ and the Present Context <p><span class="fontstyle0">–</span> </p> Oleksandr Kaplin Copyright (c) 2023 Oleksandr Kaplin 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 202 208 Chronicle of events at the Faculty of History for 2022 <p><span class="fontstyle0">–</span> </p> – – Copyright (c) 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 63 210 223