The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series: History <p>The Journal is devoted to current issues of the history of Ukraine, ancient and medieval history, archeology, modern and contemporary history, historiography and source studies. It will be interesting for scientists, experts, lecturers of higher educational institutions, postgraduate student, and students.</p> V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University en-US The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series: History 2220-7929 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br><br></p> <ol type="a"> <ul> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ul> </ol> <ol type="a"> <ul> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ul> </ol> <ol type="a"> <ul> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ul> </ol> Foreword <p>-</p> Sergey Litovchenko Sergiy Posokhov Copyright (c) 2023 Sergey Litovchenko, Sergiy Posokhov 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 9 10 Professor Mykhailo Stanchev is 70: The Career of a Statesman, Scholar, and Diplomat <p>The article is dedicated to the life and work of Professor Mykhailo Stanchev, who has recently celebrated his 70th anniversary. In the form of a memoir, the author tells about Professor Stanchev’s first steps in academia, his student years at A. Gorky Kharkiv State University (now V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University), and his early interest in Bulgarian studies. The main focus of the article is on Stanchev’s research work, in which he continued Kharkiv University’s long tradition of historical Bulgarian studies. His candidate’s thesis, dedicated to the role of youth organizations in the development of Ukrainian-Bulgarian cultural ties, was completed under the supervision of the prominent Soviet Bulgarist, professor of Kharkiv University H. M. Popov. Stanchev’s fellowship at Sofia University ‘St. Kliment of Ohrid’ in 1988-1989 took his research to a new level. A milestone in Stanchev’s academic career was the defense of his doctoral dissertation on “Dr. C. Rakovsky – Statesman, Politician, and Diplomat (1873-1941)” at the Institute of History of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The article considers Stanchev’s ties with the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, of which he was elected a foreign member in 2013, and his service as research director of the Marin Drinov Center for Bulgarian and Balkan Studies at V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University and editor-in-chief of “The Drinov Collection,” which publishes materials of the international Drinov Readings held recurrently at Kharkiv National University. For his academic work, Stanchev has received the honorary award “For Services to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences”, as well as the Drinov Gold Medal and Ribbon. Stanchev’s achievements in other areas, particularly government and diplomacy, are also discussed. Stanchev was elected deputy of the Kharkiv City Council and chaired the international department of the City Executive Committee, which was created on his initiative. In this position, he contributed to the development of Kharkiv’s international relations and helped attract foreign investment to the region. The article further touches on Stanchev’s service as first secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and head of the Department of Balkan Countries. Stanchev made a significant contribution to Ukrainian-Bulgarian relations as a temporary chargé d’affaires of Ukraine’s embassy in Bulgaria and political adviser, for which he was awarded the Golden Laurel Branch of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria. In conclusion, the author expresses hope that Professor Stanchev will continue pursuing shared academic projects with the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.</p> Yachko Ivanov Copyright (c) 2023 Yachko Ivanov 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 12 24 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-64-01 The Kharkiv School of Historical Bulgarian Studies: Phases of Development and Present State <p>The article offers a retrospective look at the development of historical Bulgarian studies at Kharkiv University over the last 177 years. The author identifies its main phases and concludes that during the era of Ukrainian independence a long scholarly tradition has transformed into a full-fledged research school that meets the principal criteria for this concept, namely: a fixed object of research and an organizational platform in the form of the Marin Drinov Center for Bulgarian and Balkan Studies; a critical mass of qualified scholars who have made a significant contribution to the knowledge of the historical past of the Bulgarian people, mainly during the early modern and modern era; and a regular academic forum (the Drinov Readings) and research periodical (“The Drinov Collection”) that are associated in the academic world with the Kharkiv hub of Bulgarian studies. This research school has a recognized leader – the only Ukrainian historian elected as a foreign member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (2013), who directs the work of a well-thought-out system of postgraduate talent selection and training. The accomplishments of Karazin University scholars found recognition in the publication by the Prof. Marin Drinov Publishing House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences of the bibliographic index “The Kharkiv School of Historical Bulgarian Studies (To the 175th Anniversary of the Research Tradition)” in 2023, as well as in the highest awards of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences received by Kharkiv’s leading Bulgarists. However, according to the author, perhaps the most important marker of the transition of this research tradition to a new qualitative level is the fact that it has nurtured three consecutive generations of specialists with the degree of doctor of historical sciences, which is an important criterion and achievement for any research school. These experienced scholars and the Drinov Center gather around themselves a large group of Bulgarists and representatives of related disciplines working in several of Kharkiv’s educational institutions, primarily the Kharkiv State Academy of Culture and H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University.</p> Sergiy Strashnyuk Copyright (c) 2023 Sergiy Strashnyuk 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 25 48 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-64-02 The Karazin Family: A New Reading (To the 250th Anniversary of the Birth of V. N. Karazin) <p>The article, dedicated to the 250th anniversary of the birth of the founder of Kharkiv Imperial University Vasyl Karazin, details little-known episodes of his life and traces the genealogy of the entire Karazin family. Based on a thorough study of archival materials, the author for the first time discusses not only the Bulgarian, but also Ukrainian, Greek, and Polish roots of the Karazin family, calling into question the one-sided views that have long dominated the literature on the subject (for example, regarding the alleged Greek roots of the founder of Kharkiv University). The author’s arguments and observations are rooted in the analysis of the records of the Department of Heraldry in the Russian State Historical Archive in St. Petersburg and personal papers of Nazar Karazin preserved in the Russian State Military Historical Archive. The article provides a wealth of biographical information on all members of the Karazin family, starting with Oleksandr Karazin, who settled in the lands of the Sloboda regiments and whom the author considers as the family’s founder. The biography of Vasyl Karazin’s father, Nazar Oleksandrovych, a colonel in the Russian army during the time of Catherine II, is explored in more detail. On the basis of archival records, the author describes in particular Nazar Karazin’s military and diplomatic service during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. New light is shed on the life of Vasyl Karazin’s grandson Mykola Mykolayovych Karazin, a well-known artist, member of the Russian Academy of the Arts, and writer, who left to posterity a diary and reports from the frontlines of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. These writings are published by the author of the article in a separate edition. Furthermore, research in the Russian State Naval Archive enables the author to flesh out little-known episodes of the life of one of the sons and another grandson of Vasyl Karazin – Filadelf senior and Filadelf junior, who served in the Russian Navy. The author has also discovered new facts from the lives of descendants of the Karazin family currently living in Ukraine and abroad.</p> Mykhailo Stanchev Copyright (c) 2023 Mykhailo Stanchev 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 49 86 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-64-03 Known in Europe, Unknown in Bulgaria (To the 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Christian Rakovsky) <p>The article is dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the birth of Christian Rakovsky (1873-1941) – a prominent figure in the international socialist movement, politician, statesman, diplomat, Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of Ukraine (1919-1923), Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the USSR in London (1923-1925) and Paris (1925-1927), one of the leaders of the Trotskyite bloc, and an opponent of Stalin. While Rakovsky’s life has been the subject of some research, many of its aspects remain unexplored. Drawing on a wealth of new documents discovered in the archives of Bulgaria, Great Britain, France, Ukraine, and Russia, the author sheds new light on little-known episodes of Rakovsky’s life – particularly the years of his youth, when he joined the international student socialist movement and spoke at international congresses. The article considers Rakovsky’s contacts with Plekhanov’s Emancipation of Labor group in Geneva, where Rakovsky studied medicine and achieved some prominence among Russian social democrats. His connections with famous Western European revolutionaries are discussed – including Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht, Jules Guesde, Karl Kautsky, and other figures of the Second International. It is noted that Rakovsky was the only member of the Bolshevik government who was also a member of the Bureau of the Second International. The article touches on a subject that has long been neglected by historians – Rakovsky’s efforts to solve the problem of Russian-Romanian relations in 1918, the resulting bilateral treaty, and his special position regarding the annexation of Bessarabia to Romania. Considerable attention is given to the question of Rakovsky’s so-called ‘Jewish’ origin and his alleged membership in the worldwide Masonic lodge, disproven on the basis of Rakovsky’s papers in the Bulgarian Historical Archive. The author also dwells on the problem of the so-called ‘Rakovsky protocols’, published by Iosif Landovsky in the book “Red Symphony: Confessions of the Trotskyist Rakovsky.” The author draws on Rakovsky’s NKVD case file and interrogation records, which he has published in full in his book “The Bloody Farce,” to demonstrate that no such protocols exist. Finally, the author addresses the rumor that Rakovsky was not executed, but spent the last years of his life in the Soviet Union. This rumor is proven false based on the analysis of extensive archival materials and memoirs of Rakovsky’s comrades; most notably, Rakovsky’s case file in the Central Archives of the KGB of the USSR contains a certificate of his execution on 11 September 1941 in the Oryol Central Prison.</p> George Chernyavskyi Copyright (c) 2023 George Chernyavskyi 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 87 109 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-64-04 The Diplomat Dr. Haralampi Sarmadzhiev and His Participation in the 1898 International Anti-Anarchist Conference in Rome <p>The article discusses the mission of the Bulgarian diplomat Dr. Haralampi Sarmadzhiev (1860-1908) at the International Conference of Rome for the Social Defense Against Anarchists held in 1898 and argues that the participation of the Principality of Bulgaria in this forum represented for the country another step towards achieving full independence. After its liberation in 1878, Bulgaria was still a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, but the Bulgarian government used every opportunity to reaffirm its self-determination and challenge its dependent status. Dr. Sarmadzhiev, born in Bolhrad in a family of wealthy Bessarabian Bulgarians, after graduating from the Bolhrad Gymnasium studied at the University of Bucharest and later in Paris, where he obtained a doctorate in law and became the first Bulgarian lawyer to receive this degree. After completing his studies in Paris, Dr. Sarmadzhiev moved to Bulgaria, just liberated from the Ottoman rule, and served in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He held high offices, including that of acting Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Principality of Bulgaria, organized the work of the newly created ministry, and cultivated a constellation of young diplomats. Dr. Sarmadzhiev was an outstanding Bulgarian diplomat of his era, whose service in Belgrade and Vienna marked a significant contribution to the development of Bulgarian-Serbian and Bulgarian-Austrian relations. He was chosen to represent the principality at the international anti-anarchist conference in Rome. At this forum, Dr. Sarmadzhiev actively worked towards the diplomatic emancipation of his country; on at least one occasion, he defied the instructions from his government and opposed the official Russian position, asserting Bulgaria’s independent stance despite pressure from both Russia and Turkey. Multilateral meetings in the Italian capital brought considerable legislative and administrative results and became a starting point for subsequent international cooperation.</p> Aleka Strezova Copyright (c) 2023 Aleka Strezova 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 110 119 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-64-05 Similarities and Differences Between the Imperial and Early Soviet Commemorative Practices (The Case of Dmytro Bahalii and His Anniversaries) <p>The article analyzes the observance of anniversaries of the prominent Ukrainian historian, educator, academic organizer, and public figure Academician Dmytro Bahalii as a kind of ‘serial case study’ in the evolution of commemorative practices. The author identifies continuity and change in the celebration of the scholar’s anniversaries during the imperial era (in 1905 and 1910) and in the early Soviet period (1927). It is found that all such occasions included ceremonial events (1905, 1910, 1927) and the publication of anniversary-themed articles dedicated to the renowned historian (some of them were printed in later collections, in 1906, 1912, 1927, and 1929). Bahalii’s anniversaries were not publicly observed at all in 1915 and the early 1920s, which can be explained both by changes in commemorative practices and by the difficult realities of the moment – World War I and political upheavals that ended in revolutions, civil wars, and the collapse of the Russian Empire. During the imperial era, it was customary to observe anniversaries of the beginning of academic career. In Soviet times, the most important anniversaries were those of birth. The seventieth anniversary of the birth of Dmytro Bahalii in 1927 stands out for the broadest press coverage and largest number of dedicated articles and ceremonial gatherings. In addition, the 1927 anniversary was marked by the publication of the scholar’s memoir <em>Autobiography: Fifty Years of Safeguarding Ukrainian Science</em> and a collection of works by other researchers on subjects closely related to Bahalii’s interests. The materials of the 1927 celebration were published in 1929. The pinnacle of the Soviet-era celebration of Bahalii’s life and work was the decision of the government of the Ukrainian SSR from 26 November 1927 to publish his collected works, rename the Department of the History of Ukrainian Culture in his honor, allocate space for the library that Bahalii had donated to the department, and grant him a personal pension. The 1932 anniversary was not observed on a large scale for two reasons: the historian’s death in February 1932 and active criticism (since 1929) of his apolitical stance. The publication in 1932 of several articles dedicated to Bahalii can be viewed as a continuation of the pre-revolutionary academic tradition.</p> Olena Bohdashyna Dmytro Prochkaruk Copyright (c) 2023 Olena Bohdashyna, Dmytro Prochkaruk 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 120 139 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-64-06 Renaming Kyiv’s Streets Amid the Russian War of Invasion: The Politics of History Between “Decommunization” and “Derussification” <p>The article undertakes a comparative thematic and narrative analysis of the trends in place name change in Kyiv (as published by the Kyiv City State Administration) during two periods: (1) between 2014 and the start of Russia’s full-scale invasion on 24 February 2022 and (2) between 24 February 2022 and the first anniversary of the Russian invasion in 2023. From 2014 to early 2023, 517 (about 17 percent) of Kyiv’s urbanonyms were changed. It is found that 58 percent of names changed during this entire time span belonged to the “Soviet nostalgic” narrative and 41 percent — to the narrative of the “Russian world”, while 1 percent were non-political. Before 24 February 2022, the “Soviet nostalgic” narrative was affected the most (88 percent of renamings), which reflects the phenomenon of “decommunization”; however, during the full-scale Russian invasion its share fell to 30 percent. In the period after 24 February 2022, the theme of “derussification” clearly dominated, with the share of removed names that represented the “Russian world” narrative increasing from 11 percent (before the full-scale invasion) to 69 percent. The largest proportion of newly minted toponyms in the period from 2014 to 2023 embody the “national Ukrainian” narrative (59 percent), while 35 percent invoke a “non-political” context and 6 percent are internationally-themed. The ongoing urbanonymic change, as analyzed in the article using Kyiv as a case study, has led to a radical transformation of the urban symbolic order in Ukraine. Ukraine is appropriating these spaces, displacing the Russian imperial legacy. The radicalization of this policy is a result of the Russian aggression; however, it reinforces an already existing trend. It is also an act of defiance, doing the opposite of what the aggressor may have planned or would have done, had Kyiv been captured. Thus the sad but stubborn irony is that the attempt to reintegrate Ukraine into the Russian imperial order has produced the exact opposite outcome — a fundamental rejection of the symbols of the “Russian world”.</p> Gibfried Schenk Copyright (c) 2023 Gibfried Schenk 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 140 169 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-64-07 “Without Delay, I Set Out to Fulfill This Pleasant Duty”: The Role of Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe in the History of Kharkiv University Through the Prism of His Correspondence <p>The article presents the first Ukrainian translation of several letters by the world-renowned German statesman, poet, writer, thinker, and naturalist, the founder of modern German literature Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) that shed light on his role in selecting the first professors for Kharkiv University. The author briefly outlines the course of Goethe’s communication with functionaries of the Kharkiv school district and Kharkiv University in the early years the 19th century, traces the history of the publication of Goethe’s letters, and notes that until now they have been largely neglected by students of the history of Kharkiv University. The article features seven letters, selected from the complete ‘Weimar edition’ of Goethe’s works and translated from the German with commentary. The earliest document is dated 27 November 1803, and the latest – 13 September 1804. The letters are addressed to the curator of the Kharkiv school district Count Seweryn Potocki, curator of the Vilnius school district Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, and German merchants and officials involved in the financial and logistical aspects of the relocation of the first German professors to Kharkiv. The correspondence revolves around the future professors of Kharkiv University J. B. Schad, J. L. T. Schnaubert, and M. G. Pilger and adjunct G. Reinisch; other candidates who in the end did not join the faculty of Kharkiv University for various reasons are also mentioned. The organization of the new professors’ research and teaching work at Kharkiv University and financial provision for them and their families are discussed. As a historical source, these letters give us insight into the complexity and fluidity of the process of putting together a faculty for the newly-established Kharkiv University.</p> Olha Vovk Olena Byelozyorova Copyright (c) 2023 Olha Vovk, Olena Byelozyorova 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 171 192 10.26565/2220-7929-2023-64-08 Book review: Kharkovskata shkola po ystorycheska b'lharystyka: (k'm 175-hodyshnynata na edna nauchna tradytsyia)». Byblyohrafsky ukazatel. Sofyia-Kharkov. Yzdatelstvo na BAN “Prof. Maryn Drynov”, 2023. 194 s. <p>-</p> Mancho Vekov Copyright (c) 2023 Mancho Vekov 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 194 198 Book review: Maryn Drynov. Pysma, telehramy, dokladny zapysky 1858–1905 h. Sofyia. Yzdatelstvo na BAN “Prof. Maryn Drynov”, 2023. 925 s. <p>-</p> Teodorichka Gotovska-Henze Copyright (c) 2023 Teodorichka Gotovska-Henze 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 199 209 Decisive Choice of Andrey Sheptytsky. Book review: Novak, M. Dva svity: Problema natsional'noi identyfikatsii Andreia Sheptyts'koho v 1865–1914 rokakh. Perekl. z pol's'k. A. Pavlyshyn. L'viv: Svichado, 2023. 640 s. <p>-</p> Yulia Kiselyova Copyright (c) 2023 Yulia Kiselyova 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 210 216 Book review: Vasili Nazarovici Karazin: Biobibliografie/Institutul Patrimoniului Cultural; alcătuitori: E. Berkovici et al.; colegiul de redacție: S. Posohov (redactor-șef) et al.; traducători: N. Cerkașina et al. Chișinău: Lexon-Prim, 2023. 275 p. <p>-</p> Diana Nicoglo Copyright (c) 2023 Diana Nicoglo 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 64 217 219