The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series: History 2023-03-25T15:23:11+00:00 Рачков Євген Сергійович Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal is devoted to current issues of the history of Ukraine, ancient and medieval history, archeology, modern and contemporary history, historiography and source studies. It will be interesting for scientists, experts, lecturers of higher educational institutions, postgraduate student, and students.</p> City and War (Foreword) 2023-03-25T15:20:49+00:00 Sergiy Posokhov Yevhen Rachkov <p>–</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sergiy Posokhov, Yevhen Rachkov Destruction, Preservation, and Rethinking of Ukraine’s Urban Cultural Heritage during the Russo-Ukrainian War 2023-03-25T15:21:19+00:00 Yevhen Rachkov <p>The article explores a range of problems relating to the destruction, preservation, and rethinking of Ukraine’s urban cultural heritage in the course of the ongoing Russian invasion. The author stresses that today protection of heritage remains an important aspect of Ukraine’s cultural policy. Since 2014, Russian military aggression has caused significant destruction in Ukrainian cities. The criminal actions of the Russian troops in Ukraine exhibit characteristics of urbicide, as they are aimed at destroying heterogeneous cultural and symbolic urban space and the diversity of the urban cultural heritage. According to experts, as a result of the Russo-Ukrainian War, the cultural heritage and cultural infrastructure of Ukraine will have suffered the heaviest destruction and damage since the Second World War. The article notes that under these conditions, new strategies for the protection of cultural heritage are being developed in Ukraine. Various public initiatives, the volunteer movement, and assistance from international organizations all play important roles. In general, Ukraine needs long-term support in the area of cultural heritage protection. Given the diversity and multifaceted nature of the country’s cultural heritage, we need to employ a variety of approaches and technologies to preserve it effectively. In particular, digital technologies, including the digitization of artifacts, should improve the record-keeping in this sphere and help keep track of the country’s cultural heritage. The author argues that the Russian aggression has led to a “turn” of sorts in the understanding of, and attitude towards, cultural heritage in Ukraine. The search for and revival of traditional components of national culture, as well as critical rethinking of the Russian imperial and Soviet heritage, are gaining more public prominence. In connection with this, the article touches on the new wave of toponymic changes in Ukrainian cities provoked by the full-scale Russian invasion, as well as on such developments as the dismantling of a certain category of urban monuments, reformatting of museum exhibits, etc.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yevhen Rachkov Destruction of Cult Buildings in Kharkiv during the Russian Military Aggression: Public Perception and Rethinking of Cultural Heritage 2023-03-25T15:21:27+00:00 Pavlo Yeremieiev <p>The article considers the ways in which public reaction to the destruction of cult buildings in Kharkiv during the full-scale Russian invasion is reflected in Ukrainian-language online media. The author examines how the religious nature of a cultural heritage object affects the perception of its destruction, how the significance of cult objects is reinterpreted in this situation, and to what extent the destruction of cult objects combines religious, ethnonational, and other connotations. Drawing on the theoretical studies of cultural memory by Aleida Assmann, the author establishes which factors influence the actualization of particular aspects of the history of damaged cult objects in the mass media. It is noted that, despite the fairly high level of secularization in Ukrainian society, the collective imagination continues to perceive churches and other religious buildings as sacred objects, the destruction of which is seen as a blasphemous act. The artistic and historical significance of damaged cult objects is actualized much less often in the texts the author analyzes. This is in line with the tendencies described by José Casanova as part of the theory of postsecularism. The specific denominational affiliation of damaged religious buildings remains of secondary importance to the mass media, which may be interpreted as a manifestation of “spontaneous religiosity,” in which the sacral nature of cult objects is recognized, but without serious reflection, awareness of denominational boundaries, or regular immersion in spiritual practices. Furthermore, in this way, respect for believers of different confessions is demonstrated: the special significance of cult objects is recognized first and foremost because of their significance for others. The article also considers the impact of the religious affiliation of cult objects on the ways in which damage done to them is reported in some Ukrainian media.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pavlo Yeremieiev Monumental Sites of Memory in Wartime: Practices of Media Representation 2023-03-25T15:21:34+00:00 Yuliya Kiselyova <p>The war has spurred a wide-ranging and intense rethinking of the symbolic meaning of memorial heritage and collective memory. An important role in this process belongs to the mass media, which define focuses of attention by selecting events and actors and take part in constructing the meaning of events related to the reinterpretation of memorial heritage. The article considers the media representation of practices of interaction with monumental sites of memory since the start of the full-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine. In the author’s view, analysis of the informational resonance surrounding the practices of preservation and destruction of monuments will help us, on the one hand, to pin down the characteristic features of the new version of collective memory being formed during the war, and, on the other, to identify the means and substance of the symbolic rethinking of memorial heritage. The study’s object of analysis is online media coverage of events related to the preservation and destruction of monumental sculpture in the largest cities of Ukraine, with a particular focus on the city of Kharkiv, whose frontline situation gives special symbolic significance to any practices of interaction with urban monumental sculpture. Analysis of news reports involves outlining their thematic spectrum and architectonics and considering rhetorical techniques and metaphors used by the authors of publications and authors of direct speech. The article also gives special attention to visual imagery in photographs illustrating online publications. In her conclusions, the author argues that it is as a result of the media coverage of practices of interaction with monuments (both preservation and damage) that the semantic meaning of monuments is recoded and memorial heritage is associated specifically with national identity. At the same time, these practices themselves acquire features of citizens’ heroic struggle for the freedom of their country.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yuliya Kiselyova Challenges of Wartime: The Work of the Central State Archive of Science and Technology (TsDNTA) of Ukraine during the Russian Invasion 2023-03-25T15:21:46+00:00 Hanna Holubkina <p>The article focuses on the activities of the Central State Archive of Science and Technology (TsDNTA) of Ukraine from the start of the full-scale Russian invasion on February 24, 2022 and until October 2022. The author gives an overview of the types of scientific and technical documentation and composition and contents of the archive’s holdings and considers the principal areas of the archive’s work, aimed at enriching the National Archive Fund with socially valuable materials, ensuring the preservation of documents, popularizing archival resources, and promoting their wider use. Particular attention is paid to important cooperation with legal entities that serve as key sources of documentation for the National Archive Fund, as well as to the provision of practical and methodological assistance to employees of state archival institutions. Implementing the Strategy for the Development of Archives until 2025 and maintaining the priority of ensuring unhindered access to information and satisfying people’s information needs by providing equal access to archival resources, the TsDNTA of Ukraine elicits feedback from users, services requests, issues electronic copies of documents, offers online consultations, etc. Despite the difficult wartime conditions and remote work, the archivists of the TsDNTA of Ukraine continue to pursue large-scale undertakings launched earlier, particularly the creation of a search system for the electronic identification of objects of preservation (TOPAZ) and development of a comprehensive 3D tour of all the premises of the archive. These endeavors not only significantly expand the nomenclature of remote services the archive provides, but also have given rise to new projects introducing innovative technologies into archival work, in particular the development of an object-geographical catalog integrated into an interactive map. These measures are aimed at adapting the TsDNTA of Ukraine to wartime conditions and preserving the country’s scientific and cultural heritage. Since the Russian armed aggression is still ongoing and archival institutions are functioning under the constant threat of destruction and seizure by the invaders, the article is far from the last word in the study of the efforts by the archivists of the TsDNTA of Ukraine to safeguard the nation’s cultural treasures. The subject has a lot of potential for further research.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hanna Holubkina Odesa’s Libraries during the Martial Law of 2022 2023-03-25T15:21:54+00:00 Ihor Stambol <p>The article analyses the work of Odesa’s libraries during the martial law of 2022. The author aimed to collect information about librarians’ reactions to the beginning of the war, the overall state of the city’s libraries, and the extent of collection losses, and to assess changes and trends in library work over half a year of martial law. The study is based on the oral-historical and historical-comparative methods and represents the first attempt to analyze the ongoing state of the library industry in Odesa. The author conducted a survey (in the form of a questionnaire) of employees of 21 libraries in the city. As part of the survey, librarians were asked to answer a number of questions regarding their situation, functions, and actions at the beginning of the full-scale Russian aggression against Ukraine. On the basis of the received answers, the principal directions of library activities and innovation during the war of national defense of 2022 are outlined. The distinguishing features of the work of libraries in Odesa concern five aspects: reaction to the beginning of the war; security conditions; collection-related issues; innovation; and situation of employees. The author notes that the libraries of Odesa have suffered less damage than library institutions in many frontline cities of Ukraine. Martial law has created both a number of challenges, particularly in the areas of security, funding, and collection expansion, and some opportunities for innovation. Libraries fast-tracked the scanning of valuable collections and began to pay more attention to issues of security and to their role in the psychological health of the community. Success has been had with a number of volunteer initiatives. Libraries have been taking very active part in informational resistance against the Russian invasion and are demonstrating professionalism in preserving their collections and responding to various challenges.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ihor Stambol Ukrainian Education in Wartime: Challenges and Problems 2023-03-25T15:22:03+00:00 Hanna Bondarenko <p>The article surveys the most acute problems and challenges that the Ukrainian educational system has faced since February 24, 2022 as a result of Russian aggression. For a certain time, the education of children and youth generally took a back seat to the basic task of survival. A significant proportion of Ukrainian children, especially displaced persons and refugees, had to miss school in the spring semester. However, despite the ongoing hostilities, educators are heroically continuing their work, even from bomb shelters. The most important problem facing school education is its transition from the domain of the state to the civil or personal sector. A child's education and its quality now primarily depend on the parents, their efforts and conviction in the need for education. The insufficient level of state funding negatively affects the entire education system, leading to a decrease in the number of teachers, lack of new curricula, lack of printed textbooks and educational materials, etc. Educational standards also suffer from the online format, which mostly presupposes self-teaching and requires self-discipline from students. Students lose motivation, and sometimes (especially at the elementary-school level) do not understand and are not able to absorb learning at all. The war is not over yet, and Ukrainian children and young people continue to live in constant psychological tension, with deep psychological trauma and fears caused by the war. A serious challenge for all educators and students is the impossibility of consistently teaching and attending online classes due to planned and emergency power outages that can last for many hours at a time. However, the search for a new format in which the Ukrainian educational system can be rebuilt and restructured is already underway. There is an active discussion of possible solutions to the problems of the Ukrainian educational system both at the international level (see for instance the International Conference on the Restoration of Ukraine, Switzerland – URC 2022) and within the country.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hanna Bondarenko “We Will Discuss the Future and Dream Together”: Cultural and Artistic Life and the Museumification of Urban Space in Wartime Kharkiv 2023-03-25T15:22:12+00:00 Olha Vovk <p>The article describes the experience of Kharkiv artists (both professional and amateur) who continued to live and create in the front-line metropolis after February 24, 2022. Attention is also given to several events that physically took place entirely or in part outside Kharkiv, but were aimed at the presentation of the city, with their organizers and target audience directly connected with it. The article shows that the making of fine art went on in Kharkiv during this time, musical works were performed, and theatrical productions were premiered. Both individual artists and collectives launched creative initiatives, and art festivals were held. Artistic practices influenced the life of the metropolis and became one of the forms of recording the memory of war. The author points out that creative work under conditions of persisting military danger had a psychotherapeutic effect on the participants, helping them to get through traumatic situations and supporting morale. Artists reflected in their work events they witnessed firsthand, and also occasionally used material objects generated by the war (such as shell fragments) to create new artistic artifacts — examples of “trench art.” Importantly, creative acts took place in iconic and recognizable city locations — for instance, at subway stations or near damaged historical and architectural landmarks. The article investigates the role of cultural and artistic practices in the process of the museumification of the urban space of Kharkiv during the full-scale Russian aggression. It is shown that already in the first months of the war, artists began to reflect on the fact that their creative practices will be included in future museum exhibits, as well as contribute to the emergence of new “sites of memory” in the urban space of Kharkiv.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Olha Vovk Images of Ukrainian Cities in Wartime Narratives 2023-03-25T15:22:21+00:00 Maryna Kurushyna <p>The study of wartime narratives throws light on the principal factors in the creation of images ofUkrainian cities. For the purposes of this work, a narrative is a story inboth verbal andvisual form. The analysis takes into account the time of appearance of an image and the specifics of its formation, construction, and functioning. The article examines the images of Ukrainian cities in Ukrainian narratives broadcast and available in the public space since the start of the full-scale Russian invasion. A threat to a city’s existence and the physical destruction of objects and landmarks, including symbolic ones, causes changes in the way of life and even its dismantling. This leads to the strengthening or weakening of some existing images, as well as to the emergence of new ones. The author particularly notes certain features of the images under study, such as the personification of cities, which are portrayed as combating the enemy, resisting, and revealing their character. A city’s image is assembled from a number of significant sites that are preserved and can be reproduced by individual and collective memory. Each city has a unique set of locations that are especially dear and important to the residents – sites that allow us to “read” the city as continuous history. The highest form of affinity with one’s city is a resident’s identification with it — symbolic inseparability, “growing into” each other. The heroic struggle of Ukrainian cities against the Russian aggressor would be impossible without preserving, first and foremost, their spiritual core, which is confirmed by the appearance of such epithets as “unbreakable” or “unconquered.” The borderland status of some of the studied cities is especially keenly felt. During the war, the frontier becomes not a melting pot of cultures, but a boundary between Us and Them. The wartime narratives emphasize the importance of borderland cities as outposts of Ukrainianness, fortress towns. Because of this, Ukrainianness becomes one of the dominant features of the images of Ukrainian cities, especially those close to the border. It becomes significant, vitally necessary. The preservation of this dominant factor in city images in wartime narratives (especially on the spiritual level) is an important marker of a city’s will to resist, its vital energy even in war.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Maryna Kurushyna “Writing to You. Miss You”: The Image of 2022 Wartime Kharkiv in Residents’ Social Media Posts 2023-03-25T15:22:30+00:00 Oleksii Yankul <p>The article examines the representation of wartime Kharkiv on social media during 2022. In total, 87 posts under the general heading “letters to Kharkiv,” posted on the Telegram and Instagram platforms, were analyzed. All the posts are tagged with the hashtags #листхаркову and #письмохарькову. The first “letter” is dated March 20, 2022 and posted on the Instagram social network. 18 Instagram posts were analyzed for this study. On March 24, the Telegram channel “Where in Kharkiv” created a rubric called “Letter to Kharkiv,” which continued until April 5, 2022. In total, 69 posts were published under this title. The study involved keeping track of city landmarks mentioned in the “letters,” in order to pinpoint locations iconic for Kharkiv residents and characteristics attributed to the city by its residents. The most often mentioned locations were the T. H. Shevchenko City Garden, M. Gorky Central Park of Culture and Recreation, M. V. Lysenko Kharkiv National Academic Theater of Opera and Ballet, Kharkiv Zoo, and Sarzhyn Ravine. The Kharkiv subway often appeared in posts, particularly in its new status as a bomb shelter. Words such as “destruction” and “explosions” occur often, but at the same time in their “letters” Kharkiv residents repeatedly refer to the fighting as a “disease” plaguing the city, and call destruction and other damage caused by shelling “wounds.” In addition, most of the posters believe in victory and state that the city will definitely be rebuilt. Overall, these posts contribute to the image of wartime Kharkiv as an “unbreakable city.” The epithets “unbreakable,” “unconquered,” “staunch,” and the like acquire special significance in the “letters” as they describe life in Kharkiv in 2022. The posters are proud of the city, its courage and perseverance. The analyzed social media posts help better understand the transformation in the perception of the city by its residents since the beginning of the fullscale Russian invasion of Ukraine. The posters see soldiers, utility workers, volunteers, doctors, first responders, and all residents of Kharkiv in general as the city’s modern-day heroes.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Oleksii Yankul Karazin University’s Museum of Archaeology in Wartime: Challenges and Responses 2023-03-25T15:22:48+00:00 Irina Shramko <p>–</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Irina Shramko The Work of Ukraine’s Art Institutions during the War 2023-03-25T15:22:56+00:00 Nataliia Ivanova <p>–</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nataliia Ivanova “Historiography in Times of War and Exile”: Digest of the Ukrainian-German Colloquium 2023-03-25T15:23:04+00:00 Julia Obertreis Liudmyla Posokhova <p>–</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Julia Obertreis, Liudmyla Posokhova Heritage-Based Post-War Urban Reconstruction in Ukraine: Preparing Future Experts in Higher Education 2023-03-25T15:23:11+00:00 Dóra Mérai Loes Veldpaus <p>–</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dóra Mérai, Loes Veldpaus