Eastern Balkan roots of the pectoral from the Tovsta Mohyla

Ключові слова: Scythia, Thrace, Macedonia, pectoral, Tovsta Mohyla

Анотація

The golden pectoral, which was found by B.M. Mozolevsky in 1971 in the Tovsta Mohyla, became widely known. However in the Scythian sphere the ornamentals of such shape didn’t have a deep tradition and actually were not spread. Many ideas that were used by a toureut when making a masterpiece, were borrowed by him from other cultural environment. The marked impact on a toureut’s conception could have

been made by the ideas that were picked up by him from the culture of the Eastern Balkan people – Thrace and Macedonia.

Many researches deem that a heavy impact on a pectoral’s conception could have been caused by breastplates from Thrace and Macedonia. They are brought together by the common shape likeness, size, composition structure as concentric visual friezes, and also by ornamentation of the middle zone with rambling floral spears. The pectoral connection with the Balkan region is reflected even more visibly by the identity of such floral ornament elements as twirled in curl spears, palmettes and acanthus leaves which form the composition of the middle frieze of the pectorals and diadems from Vergina and Stavroupoli.

The idea of recreating a picture of the universe which is implemented in the pectoral composition by bas-relief figures, could have been picked up by a toureut from Homer’s description of the shield of Achilles. In this case the connecting link between the original intention of the shield of «Achilles» pectoral and breastplates from Thrace and Macedonia could be pelta shield. This kind of Thracian armor was well known by the toureuts and was implemented by them in series of work. Also very noteworthy is the recently suggested representation of scenes with anthropomorphous characters of the pectoral upper frieze, which can be related to the legend of the Macedonia dynasty origin.

These and other observations give evidence of doubtless influence of Thrace and Macedonia peoples culture on pectoral master.

Завантаження

Дані завантаження ще не доступні.

Посилання

Alekseev, A. Iu. 2003. Khronografiia Evropeiskoi Skifii VII–IV vekov do n.e. [The Chronography of European Scythia (7th–4th centuries BC)]. Saint Petersburg: The State Hermitage Publishing House, 416 s. (In Russian).
Alekseev, A. Iu. Zoloto skifskikh tsarei iz sobraniia Ermitazha [The Gold of the Scythian Kings]. Saint Petersburg: The State Hermitage Publishing House, 2012, 272 s. (In Russian).
Andronikos, M. 1984. Vergina: the royal tombs and the ancient city. Athenon: Ekdotike Athenon, 244 p.
Archibald, Z. H. 1985. The Gold Pectoral from Vergina and its Connections. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, № 4, p. 165–185.
Babenko, L. I. 2013. Do semantyky tsentralnoi stseny pektorali z Tovstoi Mohyly [About the Pectoral from Tovsta Mohyla composition semantics]. Starozhytnosti 2013 [Antiquities 2013]. Kharkiv, s. 111–122. (In Ukrainian).
Babenko, L. I. 2017. Dva monetnykh siuzheta na izdeliiakh greko-skifskoi torevtiki [Two Monetary Plots on Handiwork of Greek-Scythian Toreutics]. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy [Archaeology and ancient history of Ukraine], vyp. 2 (23), s. 30–39. (In Russian).
Babenko, L. I. 2018. Pektoral ili grivna? (o sootvetstvii termina i morfologii ukrasheniia) [Pectoral or Torque? (matching the terminology and the morphology of this adornment)]. Stratum plus, № 3, s. 187–204. (In Russian).
Babenko, L. I. 2019. Voennaia tematika pektorali iz Tolstoi Mogily [Military Topics of the Pectoral from Tolstaya Mogila]. Stratum plus, № 3, s. 261–284. (In Russian).
Boardman, J. 1994. The diffusion of classical art in antiquity. London: Thames and Hudson, 352 p.
Dally, O. 2008. Skythische und graeco-skythische bildelemente im Nördlichen Schwarzmeerraum. Im Zeichen des Goldenen Greifen. Königsgräber der Skyten. München–Berlin–London–New York: Prestel, S. 291–298. (In German).
Ellinikos Politismos. Psiphidota [Greek culture. Mosaic]. URL: http://users.sch.gr/ipap/Ellinikos_Politismos/psi/psiphidota.htm. (Date of the application 04.04.2019). (In Greek).
Faklaris, P. V. 1991. Peritrachelion [Gorget-Peritrachelion]. Archailogiko Deltio [Archaeological Bulletin]. Athena, t. 40, s. 1–16. (In Greek).
Fornasier, J. 1997. Das Pektorale aus der Tolstaja Mogila Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Form und Funktion. Zur graeco-skythische Kunst. Archlologisches Kolloquium Münster. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, S. 119‑146. (In German).
Galanina, L. K. 1977. Skifskie drevnosti Podneprovia (Ermitazhnaia kollektsiia N. E. Brandenburga) [Scythian Antiquities of the Dnieper Basin (The Hermitage Collection of N. E. Brandenburg)]. Moskva: Nauka, 68 s. (In Russian).
Gavriliuk, N. A. 2016. Pektoral iz Tolstoi Mogily kak istochnik dlia izucheniia ekonomiki Stepnoi Skifii. Istoriografiia voprosa [The Pectoral from Tovsta Mohyla as a source for the study of the economy of Steppe Scythia. Historiography of the problem]. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy [Archaeology and ancient history of Ukraine], vyp. 2 (19), s. 284–291. (In Russian).
Gebauer, J. 1997. Rankengedanken – zum Pektorale aus der Tolstaja Mogila. Zur graeco-skythische Kunst. Archlologisches Kolloquium Münster. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, S. 147–160. (In German).
Gold der Thraker. 1979. Archäologische Schätze aus Bulgarien. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 240 S. (In German).
Iatsenko, I. V. 1977. Iskusstvo epokhi rannego zheleza [The Art of the Early Iron Age]. Proizvedeniia iskusstva v novykh nakhodkakh sovetskikh arkheologov [Works of Art in Recent Finds of Soviet Archaeologists]. Moskva: Iskusstvo, s. 43–104. (In Russian).
Jacobson, E. 1995. The Art of the Scythians: the interpenetration of cultures at the edge of the Hellenic world. Leiden‑New York: E.J. Brill, XVIII+305 p.
Kalashnik, Iu. P. 2014. Grecheskoe zoloto v sobranii Ermitazha: Pamiatniki antichnogo iuvelirnogo iskusstva iz Severnogo Prichernomoria [Greek gold in the Hermitage collection. Monuments of ancient jewelry art from the Northern Black Sea region]. Saint Petersburg: The State Hermitage Publishing House, 280 s. (In Russian).
Kellner, H.-J. 1977. Pectorale aus Urartu. Belleten, Bd.41, S. 481–493. (In German).
Kellner, H.-J. 1985. Kopfschmuck oder Brustschmuck? Bemerkungen zu neuen Funden aus Urartu. Pro Arte Antiqua: Festschrift für Hedwig Kenner II. Wien‑Berlin: A.F. Koska, S. 226–229. (In German).
Klochko, L. 2011. «Mir zemnoi» v traktovke sozdatelei pektorali iz kurgana Tolstaia Mogila (Dnepropetrovskoi obl.) [«The World Mundane» as interpreted by the makers of the Pectoral from the Tovsta Mohyla Mound (Dnipropetrovsk region)]. Arta. Seria: Arte vizuale, s. 32–38. (In Russian).
Lelekov, L. A., Raevskii, D. S. 1988. Inokulturnyi mif v grecheskoi izobrazitelnoi traditsii [The myth another culture in the Greek artistic tradition]. Zhizn mifa v antichnosti [The life of myth in Antiquity]. Moscow: Sovetskii khudozhnik, vyp. XVIII, ch. I, s. 215–226. (In Russian).
Mantsevich, A. P. 1974. Chertomlykskaia vaza i pektoral iz Tolstoi Mogily [Chertomlyk vase and pectoral from Tolstaya Mogila]. Pulpudeva. Sofia, vol. I. s. 83–98. (In Russian).
Mantsevich, A. P. 1975. K voprosu ob izobrazheniiakh «varvarov» na predmetakh torevtiki iz kurganov Severnogo Prichernomoria [On the question of the images of the Barbarians on the objects of the toreutics from the tumuli along the Northern Black Sea Coast]. Studia Thracica. Frako-skifskie kulturnye sviazi [Studia Thracica. Thracian and Scythian Cultural Relations]. Sofia, vol. I, s. 112–126. (In Russian).
Mantsevich, A. P. 1976. Izobrazheniia «skifov» v iuvelirnom iskusstve antichnoi epokhi [Images of «Scythians» in the jewelry art of the ancient era]. Archeologia [Archaeology]. Warszawa, vol. 26, p. 1–45. (In Russian).
Mantsevich, A. P. 1980. Zolotoi nagrudnik iz Tolstoi Mogily [The golden breastplate from Tolstaya Mogila]. Thracia Serdicae. Sofia, vol. V, s. 97–120. (In Russian).
Martinez, J.-L. (ed.). 2015. L’épopée des rois thraces. Découvertes archéologiques en Bulgarie. Paris: Musée du Louvre. 399 p. (In French).
Meliukova, A. I. 1979. Skifiia i frakiiskii mir [Scythia and the Thracian world]. Moskva: Nauka, 256 s. (In Russian).
Merhav, R. 1991. Some Observations on Pectorals and Medallions. Urartu. A Metalworking Center in the first Millennium B.C.E. Jerusalem: Israel Museum, p. 171–176.
Mikhailin, V. Iu. 2010. Zolotoe lekalo sudby: pektoral iz Tolstoi Mogily i problema interpretatsii skifskogo «zverinogo stilia» [Golden template of fate: pectoral from Tolstaya Mogila and the problem of interpretation of the Scythian «animal style»]. Saratov–Saint Petersburg: LISKA, 172 s. (In Russian).
Mozolevskyi, B. M. 1979. Tovsta Mohyla. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 251 s. (In Ukrainian).
Pidvysotska, O. P., Cherniakov, I. T. 2002. Tekhnolohichni sposterezhennia nad serednim yarusom pektorali iz Tovstoi Mohyly [Technological observations over the middle tier of Pectoral from Tovsta Mohyla]. Muzeini chytannia [Museum readings]. Kyiv, s. 17–26. (In Ukrainian).
Pfrommer, M. 1982. Grossgriechischer und mittelitalischer Einfluss in der Rankenornamentik frühhellenistischer Zeit. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts, Bd. 97, S. 119–190. (In German).
Polin, S. V. 2014. Skifskii Zolotobalkovskii kurgannyi mogilnik V‑IV vv. do n.e. na Khersonshchine [Scythian burial mounds Zolotaia Balka 5 th–4 th centuries BC in Kherson region]. Kyiv: Izdatel Oleg Filiuk, 776 s. (In Russian).
Savostina, E. A. 2016. K probleme atributsii pektorali iz kurgana Tolstaia Mogila [To the problem of attribution of pectoral from the barrow Tolstaya Mogila]. Artikult-21 [Articult-21], № 1, s. 85, 86. (In Russian).
Savostina, E. A. 2019. Neskolko zametok o pektorali iz kurgana Tolstaia Mogila: voprosy atributsii i kulturnoi prinadlezhnosti [Some remarks on the pectoral fromthe burial mound Tolstaya Mogila: the questions of attribution and cultural background]. Bosporskie issledovaniia [Bosporos Studies], vyp. XXXIX, s. 58–88. (In Russian).
The Gold of Macedon. Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki. URL: https://www.amth.gr/en/exhibitions/permanent-exhibitions/gold-macedon. (Date of the application 04.04.2019).
Treister, M. 2005. Masters and Workshops of the Jewellery and Toreutics from Fourth-Century Scythian Burial-Mounds. Scythians and Greeks. Cultural Interactions in Scythia, Athens and the Early Roman Empire (sixth century BC – first century AD). Exeter: University of Exeter Press, p. 56–63, 190–194.
Treister, M.Iu. 2010. Iuvelirnoe delo i torevtika [Jewellery and Toreutics]. Antichnoe nasledie Kubani v trekh tomakh [Ancient heritage of Kuban: in three volumes]. Moskva: Nauka, t. 2, s. 534–597. (In Russian).
Venedikov, I., Gerasimov, T. 1973. Trakiyskoto izkustvo [ Thracian treasure]. Sofia: Balgarski hudozhnik, 408 s. (In Bulgarian).
Vinogradov, Iu. A. 2007. Bolshoi lekif Ksenofanta [The large lekythos of Xenophantos]. Sankt-Peterburg: Izdatelstvo Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha, 64 s. (In Russian).
Опубліковано
2020-12-06
Як цитувати
Бабенко, Л. (2020). Eastern Balkan roots of the pectoral from the Tovsta Mohyla. Дриновський збірник, 13, 45-52. https://doi.org/10.7546/DS.2020.13.06