Екологічна стійкість та фітомеліоративна придатність деревних порід урбанізованих екосистем

Н. Глібовицька

Анотація


Розглянуто проблему добору деревних порід у зелених насадженнях міських екосистем. Проаналізовано екологічну стійкість та фітомеліоративну придатність домінуючих представників найпоширеніших родів деревних рослин, що використовуються в озелененні урбанізованих територій. Виділено критерії оцінки вітальності рослин на різних рівнях біосистемної організації, основні показники пристосувально-захисних процесів адаптованих видів та деструктивних параметрів нестійких видів у стресових умовах зростання. Запропоновано використовувати стійкі до антропогенного забруднення види роду Верба у якості ефективних фітомеліорантів техногенно-трансформованих екосистем. Чутливі до контамінації довкілля види роду Каштан та Сосна не рекомендуються для озеленення урбанізованих територій. Проте їх можна застосовувати як інформативні біоіндикатори екологічного стану навколишнього середовища. Середньостійкі види родів Тополя, Липа, Береза, Клен рекомендовано впроваджувати у озеленення відпочинкових зон міських екосистем – парків та скверів. Екологічна стійкість проаналізованих представників родів дерев в умовах антропогенного навантаження зростає у ряді: Каштан → Сосна → Тополя → Липа → Береза → Клен → Верба.

Ключові слова


екологічна стійкість; фітомеліоративна придатність; деревні породи; урбосередовище

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